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The Dominant Business Model in the Pharmaceutical Sector: Profits Based on Control over Medical Knowledge

 

By Marc-André Gagnon*, PhD


Post-Doctoral Fellow for the Centre for Intellectual Property Policy, McGill University
Lecturer in Sociology and Economics, UQAM and University of Montreal

 

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Publications:

-Prescrire International (English version of Prescrire);
-PLoS Medicine;
-Therapeutics Letters from Therapeutics Initiative, UBC.


Non-Mcgill Websites:

- Healthy Skepticism; http://www.healthyskepticism.org/
- Public Citizen Health Research Group; http://www.citizen.org/hrg/
- Pharmed Out; http://www.pharmedout.org/
- No Free Lunch; http://www.nofreelunch-uk.org/
- Rx for change (CADTH); http://www.acmts.ca/index.php/en/compus/optimal-ther-resources/interventions
- PPRC: www.pharmaceuticalpolicy.ca (upcoming)

Also, see new report by Institute of Medicine:
Conflict of Interest in Medical Research, Education, and Practice. National Academies Press. To be published in December 2009.

  • ALLHAT. “Major Outcomes in High-Risk Hypertensive Patients Randomized to Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitor or Calcium Channel Blocker vs Diuretic.” JAMA 288 #23 (2002): 2981-97.
  • ANGELL, Marcia. “Drug Companies & Doctors: A Story of Corruption”, New York Review of Books 56 #1 (January 15, 2009).
  • BASS, Alison. Side Effects: A Prosecutor, a Whistleblower, and the Truth about a Bestselling Antidepressant: Side Effects: A Prosecutor, a Whistleblower, and the Truth about a Bestselling Antidepressant. Chapel Hill: Algonquin
  • Books, 2008.
  • BERENSON, Alex. “Drug has no benefit in trial, makers say.”New York Times, January 14, 2008.
  • BIRON, Pierre, Barbara Mintzes, Joel Lexchin, Marc-André Gagnon, James M Wright, Adam Hofmann and Vijaya Musini, “Is the Diovantage Patient Support Program Direct-to-Consumer Advertising?” Canadian Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 16 #2 (Summer 2009): 285-286.
  • FRETHEIM, Atle. “Back to thiazide-diuretics for hypertension: Reflections after a decade of irrational prescribing.” BMC Family Practice 4 #19 (December 23, 2003): 1-4.
  • FUGH-BERMAN, Adriane and Shahram Ahari. “Following the Script: How Drug Reps Make Friends and Influence Doctors.”,PloS Medicine 4 #4 (April 2007): 621-5.
  • GAGNON, Marc-André. “Patients Shortchanged by Big Pharma.” Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology News 28 #4 (February 15, 2008b): 6-8.
  • GAGNON, Marc-André. The Nature of Capital in the Knowledge-Based Economy; The Case of the Global Pharmaceutical Industry. Doctoral Dissertation in Political Science: York University. May 2009.
  • GAGNON, Marc-André and Joel Lexchin. "The Cost of Pushing Pills: A New Estimate of Pharmaceutical Promotion Expenditures in the United States." PLoS Medicine 5 #1 (January 2008): 1-6.
  • HEALY, David. Let Them Eat Prozac. New York: New York University Press, 2004.
  • HEALY, David. Mania. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 2008.
  • HEALY, David and Dinah Cattell. “Interface between authorship, industry and science in the domain of therapeutics.” The British Journal of Psychiatry 183 (2003): 22-7.
  • HENSLEY S. and B. Martinez. “To Sell their Drugs, Companies Increasingly Relies on Doctor.” Wall Street Journal, July 15, 2005.
  • Inspection Générale des Affaires Sociales. Encadrement des Programmes d’accompagnement des patients associés à un traitement médicamenteux financés par les entreprises pharmaceutiques. IGAS, 2007 (Rapport confidentiel publié en ligne en janvier 2008: http://www.atoute.org/n/article82.html).
  • Institute of Medicine. Conflict of Interest in Medical Research, Education, and Practice. National Acemies Press. Available in Pre-Publication: http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=12598
    JACOB, Robert. Le National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) – Une analyse en lien avec les mandats prévus pour
  • l’Institut national d’excellence en santé et services sociaux.. Rapport de l’institut National de Santé Public. Québec: Gouvernement du Québec, 2009.
  • JONES, Peter B. Thomas R.E. Barnes, Linda Davies, Graham Dunn, Helen Loyd, Karen P. Hayhurst, Robin M. Murray, Alison Markwick, Shôn W. Lewis, “Randomized Controlled Trial of the Effect on Quality of Life of Second- vs First-Generation Antipsychotic Drugs in Schizophrenia.” Archives of General Psychiatry 63 (October 2006): 1079-87.
  • JUREIDINI, Jon N. And Leemon B. McHenry. “Key Opinion Leaders and Paediatric Antidepressant Overprescribing.” Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics 78 (2009): 197-201.
  • KASSIRER, Jerome P. On the Take. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.
  • KATZ, D., A.L. Caplan and J.F. Merz. “All Gifts Large and Small: Towards an Understanding of the Ethics of the Pharmaceutical Industry
  • Gift-giving.” American Journal of Bioethics 3 (2003): 39-46.
  • KIRSCH, Irving. The Emperor’s New Drug; Exploding the Antidepressant Myth. Bodley Head, 2009.
  • KRIMSKY, Sheldon. Science in the Private Interest; Has the Lure of Profits Corrupted Biomedical Research. Oxford: Rowman and
  • Littlefield Publishers, 2004.
  • LENZER, Jeanne. “Doctors’ Group Files Legal Charges Against Nine French Doctors Over Competing Interests.” British Medical Journal 338 (June 13 2009): b2347.
  • LEXCHIN, Joel, Lisa Bero, Benjamin Djulbegovic and Octavio Clark. “Pharmaceutical Industry Sponsorship and Research Outcome and Quality: Systematic Review.” British Medical Journal 326 (May 2003): 1167-70.
  • MATHESON, Alastair. Corporate Science and the Husbandry of Scientific and Medical Knowledge by the Pharmaceutical Industry. BioSocieties (2008), 3:355–382.
  • MORGAN, Steve, Devon Greyson, Gillian Hanley and Elizabeth Kinney. “Incentives for valued innovation in the pharmaceutical sector.” Report prepared for Health Canada, UBC Centre for Health Services and Policy Research, November 2006.
  • MOYNIHAN, Ray. “Key Opinion Leaders: Independent Experts or Drug Representatives in Disguise?” British Medical Journal 336 (2008): 1402-3.
  • MOYNIHAN, Ray and Alan Cassels. Selling Sickness: How the World's Biggest Pharmaceutical Companies Are Turning Us All into Patients. Vancouver: Douglas & McIntyre, 2005.
  • PEAR, Robert. “Drug Makers Battle A U.S. Plan to Curb Rewards for Doctors.” New York Times, December 26, 2002.
  • PETERSEN, Melody. Our Daily Meds: How the Pharmaceutical Companies Transformed Themselves into Slick Marketing Machines and Hooked the Nation on Prescription Drugs”. Vancouver: Douglas & McIntyre, 2008.
  • POLLACK, Andrew. “The Minimal Impact of a Big Hypertension Study.” New York Times, November 27, 2008.
  • Prescrire. “L’année 2006 du médicament: quand la publicité masque l’absence de progrès thérapeutiques.” La Revue Prescrire 27 #280 (February 2007): 140-50.
  • Prescrire. “L’année 2007 du médicament: les politiques et les agences laissent la santé des populations aux mains des firmes.”
  • Prescrire, “L’année 2008 du médicament: Gare à la non-qualité.” Prescrire 29 #304 (February 2009): 138-144.
  • RAFTERY, James, Andrew Clegg, Jeremy Jones, Seng Chuen Tan and Andrew Lotery. “Ranibizumab (Lucentis) versus bevacizumab (Avastin): modelling cost effectiveness. » British Journal of Ophtalmology 91 (2007): 1244-1246.
  • SCHAFFER, Arthur. “Biomedical conflicts of interest: a defence of the sequestration thesis—learning from the cases of Nancy Olivieri and David Healy.” Journal of Medical Ethics. 30(1) (February 2004): 8–24.
  • SISMONDO, Sergio. “Ghost Management: How Much of the Medical Literature Is Shaped Behind the Scenes by the Pharmaceutical Industry?” PLoS Medicine 4 #9 (September 2007): 1429-33.
  • SPIELMANS, G. I. “The Promotion of Olanzapine in Primary Care: An Examination of Internal Industry Documents.” Social Science amd Medicine (2009). (Pre-Publication: www.furiousseasons.com/documents/Spielmanszyprexa.pdf )
  • STEINBROOK, Robert. “A Higher Bar – Vermont’s New Law on Marketing Prescribed Products.” New England Journal of Medicine 10.1056 (June 10 2009).
  • STEINMAN MA, Bero LA, Chren MM, Landefeld CS. “Narrative review: the promotion of gabapentin: an analysis of internal industry documents.” Annals of Internal Medicine 145 (2006): 284-93.
  • TURNER, Eric H., Annette M. Matthews, Eftihia Linardatos, Robert A. Tell, and Robert Rosenthal. “Selective Publication of Antidepressant Trials and Its Influence on Apparent Efficacy.” New England Journal of Medicine 358 #3 (January 17, 2008): 252-260.
  • VAN DUPPEN, Dirk. La guerre des médicaments. Bruxelles: Aden, 2005.
  • WAZANA, Ashley. “Physicians and the Pharmaceutical Industry; Is a Gift Ever Just a Gift.” Journal of the American Medical Association 283 #3 (January 2000): 373-80.
  • YOUNG, Terence H. (Canadian Federal Liberal MP), Death by Prescription. Toronto: Key Porter Books, 2009.

 

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